Monday, September 29, 2008

comparison and contrast

In comparison, comparing two things shows how they are similar.In contrast, if contrast two thing will show how they are different. The purpose of comparing and contrasting two things is understand the two things more clearly, and at time, to make judgments about them. Comparison and contrast essay call for one of the two types of development. These are one side at a time and point by point. In this method of development, all of the points of comparison or conrast are addressed first with respect to one of the subjects, and then to the other. In this method of development, each point of comparison or contrast is addressed without respect to each of the subjects in turn.


Description is a verbal preface of a person, place, or thing. Because description is a mode of expository writing which is relied upon in other expository modes, we sometimes find difficulty in imagining a purely descriptive essay. In a narrative, for example, description can make the setting of characters more vivid; in a process paper it can insure that the audience understands the finished product. Regardless of how we use description, it is easy to see that it strengthens an essay considerably. a statement, picture in words, or account that describes; descriptive representation. the act or method of describing, sort; kind; variety: dogs of every description. Geometry. the act or process of describing a figure. The act, process, or technique of describing. A representation in words of the nature and characteristics of a thing. The act of describing; a delineation by marks or signs.


Narration is storytelling: giving readers an account of something that happen, is used to make a statement clear or illustrate a point. The sharper and more colorful the detail, the greater the impact the narration will have. Narration is, simply put, the art of "telling back" what has been learned. It is an integral part of the Charlotte Mason method, and is often used by Classical educators and other homeschooling families who employ a "living books" approach to education, rather than a textbook approach. The art of narration begins early, before a child has learned to read. Even a preschool child can "tell back" the favorite stories read over and over by parents. When our young children "read" their favorite books, turning the pages lovingly and repeating the stories to their dolls, that is an unprompted narration.As the subject matter of the narration becomes more complex, so does the narration itself. Instead of just "telling back" the story, the details and underlying themes of a reading can be drawn forth.


Process is a series of steps performed in a definite order. A process is a naturally occurring or designed sequence of change of properties or attributes of an object or system. More precisely, and from the most general systemic perspective, every process is representable as a particular trajectory (or part thereof) in a system's phase space. A process is a series of progressive and interdependent steps by which an end is attained: a chemical process. Procedure usually implies a formal or set order of doing a thing, a method of conducting affairs.

cause and effect

By examining the cause or effects of something, we seek to explain thing that happen in our lives. There are nearly always multiple causes and effect associated with any phenomenon (action, event, idea, etc.). Emphasizing one or another cause and/ or effect is the point of writing a cause - and- effect essay. Be aware, however, that in doing so, you are making an argument. Be sure to adequately support your point! Causality (but not causation) denotes a necessary relationship between one event (called cause) and another event (called effect) which is the direct consequence (result) of the first. A cause is an agent or condition that permits the occurrence of an effect or leads to a result. from Latin causa: to make something happen, the reason something happens. A cause implies what is called a "causal connection" as distinguished from events which may occur but do not have any effect on later events. Example: While driving his convertible, Johnny Youngblood begins to stare at pretty Sally Golightly, who is standing on the sidewalk. While so distracted he veers into a car parked at the curb. Johnny's inattention (negligence) is the cause of the accident, and neither Sally nor her beauty is the cause, short for cause of action.


In order to be fully understood, we often have to define our terms. In a written definition, we make clear in a more detailed and formal way our under understanding of a term in order to illustrate a point. Such a definition typically starts with one meaning of a term. A definition is a statement of the meaning of a word or phrase. The term to be defined is known as the definiendum (Latin: that which is to be defined). The words which define it are known as the definiens (Latin: that which is doing the defining). There are two types of definitions, these are, descriptive and stipulative. A descriptive definition provides to a term a meaning which is in general use.A stipulative definition of a term carries a meaning which a speaker wants it to convey for the purpose of his or her discourse. Thus, the term may be new, or a stipulative definition may prescribe a new meaning to a term which is already in use.A descriptive definition can be shown to be "right" or "wrong" by comparison to usage, but a stipulative definition cannot.A presicing definition extends the descriptive dictionary definition (lexical definition) of a term for a specific purpose by including additional criteria that narrow down the set of things meeting the definition.

division or classification

We spend a good deal of time organizing our environment in order to make sense of it and deal with it more efficiently. "Edibility" and " storage location " would be the principles of classification and division in the preceding examples. In writing, we classify and divide a subject in order to explain it to readers. A division/classification paragraph or essay either divides something into parts or groups related things into categories. Division and classification are ways of presenting a body of information in an organized and easily accessible way. In division we list the component parts of a single thing. For example, every essay we write could be divided into the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. In turn, the body could probably be further subdivided. Instead of starting with a single thing, classification occurs when we have many things and we try to organize or file them. Division is the process of breaking a whole into parts; classification is the act of sorting individual items into categories.Through classification and division, we can make sense of seemingly random ideas by putting scattered bits of information into useful, coherent order. By breaking a large group into smaller categories and bringing separate items together into particular categories, we are able to identify relationships between the whole and its parts and to recognize similarities and differences among the parts themselves. (Remember, though, that simply enumerating representative examples does not constitute classification; when you classify, you always sort individual examples into categories according to some grouping principle.) Division is the opposite of classification. When you divide, you start with a whole (an entire class) that you break into its individual parts-smaller, more specific classes, called subclasses. For example, you might start with the large general class television shows and divide it into smaller subclasses: comedy, drama, action/adventure, and so forth. You could divide each of these subclasses still further-- action/adventure programs, for example, might include westerns, police shows, and so on--and each of these subclasses could be further divided as well. Eventually you would need to determine a particular principle to help you assign specific programs to one category or another--that is, to classify them.